What is Direct Variation ? Two quantities x and y are said to be in direct variation, if they increase or decrease together such that the ratio of their corresponding values remains the same.
If x and y vary directly and x1, x2 are the values of x and y1, y2 are the corresponding values of y, then
x1/y1 = x2 /y2 = k where k (a positive number) is a constant called the constant of variation.
What is Inverse Variation ?
Two quantities x and y are said to be in inverse variation, if an increase in x results in a decrease in y and a decrease in x results in an increase in y such that their product is a constant.
If x and y vary inversely and x1
are values of x and y1
are the corresponding values of y, then
= k where k is the constant of variation.
Q.1 The cost of 4 metres of a particular quality of cloth is Rs. 168. How much will be the cost of 2, 6, 10 and 12 meters of the same type ?
Solution : Suppose the length of cloth is x metres and its cost, in Rs., is y.
|x ||2 ||4 ||10 ||12 |
|y ||y2 ||168 ||y3 ||y4 |
As the length of cloth increases, cost of the cloth also increases in the same ratio. It is a case of direct proportion.
We make use of the relation of type x1
(i) Here x1
= 168 and x2
gives 4/168 = 2/y2
= (2x168) / 4 = 84
(ii) If x3
=10, then 4/168 = 10/y3
= (168 x 10)/4 = 420
(iii) If x4 = 12, then 4/168 = 12/y4
= (168 x 12)/4 = 504.
Therefore, the missing entries are 84, 420 and 504.